Attention, unapologetic sneakerheads: It’s time to go back to the classroom. That’s right. You’re about to be schooled on the parts of a sneaker and sneaker anatomy.
Why is knowing the parts of a sneaker so important, you may ask? Well, along with the inner workings being interesting information to keep in your back pocket to impress your friends, knowing a bit about the different parts of a sneaker can make you a smarter shopper and a better collector. Sure, you can spot a sick pair of sneakers from a mile away. But decoding the anatomy and exact features that make some shoes stand out is a whole different animal. That’s why having the language to talk about shoes is an essential 101 course, especially if you are a self-proclaimed sneakerhead.
In fact, Nike estimates there are 23 different parts in the anatomy of a single sneaker. Now, some sneakers may have more components while other sneakers may have fewer. But this guide to the anatomy of a sneaker covers the universal basics, giving a good basis of knowledge for all you soon-to-be footwear experts out there.
No, foxing isn’t the term hunters use when stalking fox and a quarter isn’t just a coin worth 25 cents. In the world of sneakers, these terms define some of the essential parts of a shoe. If you’ve ever been curious about how sneakers are made or just want to expand your vocabulary like an unabashed sneaker nerd, check out the definitions below to learn more about the parts of a sneaker and the anatomy of shoes. To make things easy on you, the definitions are broken into three main subcategories: uppers, soles, and lacing.
The Sneaker’s Upper
When it comes to sneaker anatomy, the upper is the part of the shoe that wraps around your foot. It is quite literally the uppermost portion of the shoe. Uppers are often made of a variety of materials, from mesh to canvas to leather to suede to innovative eco-friendly fabrics. Take notes. There are a lot of parts of an upper to remember
A sneaker’s vamp is the portion of material covering the top of the toes. It’s often made of mesh in performance sneakers to enhance breathability. On typical Jordans, for example, the vamp is a leather piece covered by several small ventilation holes, making it easy to identify.
The upper of a sneaker is also made up of the quarter, which is the area covering the sides and back of the foot. The quarter often matches the material of the vamp, but can also feature a quarter overlay, which is often crafted in a different material to enhance the overall style of a shoe.
From the Nike Swoosh to the Adidas stripes, logos are an essential component of any shoe. Almost every sneaker on the market features a logo on the outward-facing (or lateral) side of the shoe, which acts as a main design component to the sneaker.
The collar of a shoe is where you insert your foot. This portion is often made of foam to help protect the back of your ankle and heel, especially if your shoe is made with performance in mind. Remember: A well-fitting shoe won’t cause the collar to rub on the back of your heel.
The sock liner of a sneaker, often just called the lining, is the fabric inside a shoe that your sock touches. In sneakers, the sock liner often features a bit of padding to enhance comfort. A good sock liner will be forgiving of foot odors and resist deterioration to help prolong the life of your sneaker.
Insoles are the portion of a sneaker that your foot rests on, often integral to the fit and feel of the shoe. Insoles are usually made of flexible foam, rubber, or padded leather. Many insoles are created to contour to your foot, prioritizing the wearer’s comfort. While some insoles are removable, others are glued down to the base of the shoe.
The heel counter is the stiffest piece of material in a shoe, cupping your heel to prevent excessive movement. The heel counter is also essential in helping a shoe maintain its shape.
Foxing is the material on the outside of the shoe that covers the heel counter. This stitched-on heel piece is often made of leather, rubber, or sturdy fabric to help reinforce the counter. Foxing, however, also adds to the overall style of the shoe.
Extending around the toes at the front and sides of a sneaker, the mudguard is often made of a durable and washable material that is forgiving when it comes to dirt, grime, and—you guessed it—mud. If your sneaker is made of mesh, suede, or particularly sensitive material, the mudguard defends the shoe from serious damage. Not only that, but a proper mudguard will also prevent water from flooding your shoe via these more permeable fabrics. Often, a shoe’s quarter overlay, foxing, and mudguard will be in the same color and fabric while a sneaker’s quarter and vamp are in a different color and fabric.
Predictably, the toe box is the area in which your toes are housed in a sneaker. A well-fitting toe box shouldn’t pinch your toes, but should securely house your feet for the best fit.
The tongue is the portion of a sneaker that sits under the laces, protecting the top of your foot from any pressure that comes with snugly securing the sneaker. On sneakers, the tongue is usually made of fabric-covered foam, aiding in comfort and preventing rubbing from laces.
Located on the back of the heel, the heel tab helps you easily pull on the sneaker. On sneakers, it can either be a fabric loop or a portion of easy-to-grip material above the heel counter. Simple as that.
The sole of a sneaker may make or break a shoe’s comfort and performance, but its construction is actually quite simple. When it comes to a sneaker, the sole is often only made of two or three easily identified components.
The midsole is perhaps one of the most defining parts of a sneaker. It is situated right between the upper and the outsole, and it’s responsible for the main cushioning technology in a shoe. The midsole is often made of foam, with many athletic footwear brands innovating on midsole design and material to differentiate shoes from competitors. It’s one of the most important features of a good performance shoe.
The outsole is the bottom layer of a shoe’s sole and the only part of a sneaker that comes into contact with the ground. The outsole is often made of rubber, providing the shoe’s tread and traction. On some sneakers, the outsole is one piece. On others, it’s split into two: the heel and tip.
The toe cap, which is also known as the bumper or toe roll, is an extension of a sneaker’s outsole that covers the very front of the toes in durable rubber material. The toe cap helps protect the frontmost portion of a sneaker, which can often be susceptible to wear. A toe cap is especially common in athletic shoes.
When it comes to securing your sneaker to your foot, a shoe’s lacing system is obviously essential. Lacing systems are quite simple, but they are essential to sneaker design—especially when dealing with performance shoes. Athletic shoes rely on lacing systems for safety and security, making this portion of a sneaker undeniably important.
You’ve likely known this sneaker vocabulary word since learning to tie your shoes in kindergarten. Laces are the strings that secure a sneaker to your foot. They are often the only removable component of a sneaker, letting a wearer switch them out for different colors and styles to customize a sneaker’s look. You can also tie laces in many patterns, adding to the overall style of the shoe.
An eyestay is a piece of fabric material punched with holes for your laces to run through. Eyestays are sewn to the upper (the quarter, to be exact), allowing the sneaker’s laces to pull the shoe upper together over the tongue for a secure fit.
Eyelets refer to the round metal pieces that reinforce a sneaker’s lace holes, ensuring you can pull your laces tight without damaging your shoe. An easy-to-define yet essential portion of any sneaker.